Blog: Thoughts on Critical Thinking

Welcome to the interactive blog of distinguished authorities on critical thinking, Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Gerald Nosich, Senior Fellows of the Foundation for Critical Thinking. Join us here often – we will share personal readings we find helpful to our own development, instructional designs and processes we recommend, and strategies for applying critical thinking to everyday life situations.

Through this blog, we will also recommend videos and movies that can help you, your students, your colleagues, and your family internalize and contextualize critical thinking principles, or identify where and how critical thinking is missing. Look for our tips and questions connected with our recommendations.

We will also showcase in our blog articles by our scholars and by community members that are exemplary in advancing critical thinking. If you would like to recommend articles for showcasing here that you believe are exemplary, please forward them to us at
Richard Paul Archives
Sep 13, 2021 • 4d ago
Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College-University Curriculum Part I (Part 6 of 8)

{"ops":[{"insert":"This article was published in the Fall 2011 issue of Sonoma State University’s"},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":" Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines"},{"insert":" (vol. 26, no. 3) and was titled, “Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College/University Curriculum Part I.” (Part II was published in the Spring 2012 issue.)\n \nThe piece was divided into eight sections:\n\nAbstract"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Introduction"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"I. My Intellectual Journey"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"II. Barriers to the Cultivation of Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"III. Forms and Manifestations of Critical Thinking, Mapping the Field"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"IV. The Establishment of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"V. Academic Departments, Faculty and Administrators Generally Fail to Foster Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"VI Conclusion"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"\nThe sixth of these appears below.\n\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"IV. The Establishment of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking"},{"insert":"\n \nWhen I was an undergraduate (1955-1960), Aristotelian Catholicism provided me with a source of serious reflections about what seemed to me to be life’s deepest and most significant questions. However by the time I was a graduate student, religious answers no longer seemed adequate, and I turned to philosophy (more broadly) for possible intellectual orientations that would help me make sense of the world. I became increasingly concerned with the difficulty of determining truth from fiction, sense from nonsense, reason from unreason, wisdom from hyperbole or distraction. I constructed my first serious independent intellectual work during my post graduate years centered on the logic of questions and their settlement conditions (i.e. on what must be done to meet the intellectual demands of questions of various and sundry types). My core idea was that if all reasoning is question-centered, the logic of the question at issue should determine what process or procedures were relevant to the settlement of any given question. I began to seek generic intellectual structures essential to all question-centered thought. Hence, instead of routinely asking: “What are my premises? And “what are my conclusions?” I asked “what is my purpose? What is the question at issue? What information or data are relevant to the settlement of the question at issue? What inferences am I making in interpreting those data? What are the key concepts I am using in my thinking? What assumptions am I making? What implications follow from the answers to the above questions? And what is the point of view from the perspective of which I am framing all of my reasoning? These eight questions became the basis upon which I developed the concept of the “elements of thought.” These eight question categories I came to see as essential to all human thought (whether the thinker came to terms with them explicitly or not). More on the elements of thought in part two of these reflections.\n \nBy 1980 my intellectual orientation became clear with the establishment of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking, non-profit sister organizations whose mission is educational reform through critical thinking. In 1981, the Center for Critical Thinking (under my direction) held the First International Conference on Critical Thinking and Moral Critique at Sonoma State University. The goals of the conference were two-fold: 1) to provide a forum for interested persons to develop their understanding and practice of critical thinking, and; 2) to focus scholarship on conceptualizing critical thinking as a comprehensive intellectual orientation that sheds light on, and provides the intellectual underpinnings for, all possible intellectual or mental constructs.\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"A. The First Conference Goal"},{"insert":"\nThe first conference goal has been achieved, and next year will mark the 32nd consecutive International Conference on Critical Thinking and Educational Reform. However, we are a long way from the widespread cultivation of fair-minded critical societies — in fact none exist.\n \nIn 1990 the Foundation for Critical Thinking published an anthology of my writings ("},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World"},{"insert":"). This collection represents, as John Chaffee put it, my “working out of the basic concepts and insights of critical thinking within an integrated theoretical framework.”\n \nWhat the field of Critical Thinking Studies has needed from the beginning and still lacks are ways to engage teachers and scholars in the challenge of intellectual work that re-conceptualizes all teaching and learning within an integrated theoretical framework that both teachers (at a moderate to high level) and students (at an entry level) could command. One essential goal of critical thinking (for those working in association with our organization) was that of successfully locating the central concepts of critical thinking within a highly flexible yet integrated theoretical framework. My anthology, "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World (1990) "},{"insert":"was intended to spearhead this process. Here are some of the reviews of this book from theoreticians in the field (1990):\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"John Chaffee."},{"insert":" “Paul’s book…is a milestone in the emergence of the field of critical thinking. As a pioneer and leader in this movement, Dr. Paul has, more than anyone, sought to place its central concepts and insights within an integrated theoretical framework, and this volume reveals both the extraordinary breadth and depth of his thinking… The text will serve as an invaluable resource for educators at every level, and constitutes a significant contribution to the literature and intellectual advancement of the critical thinking field.”"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" "},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Perry Weddle."},{"insert":" “Paul poses a challenge not just to critical thinking instruction and education, he poses a challenge to the whole educational enterprise as presently conceived.”"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" "},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Michael Scriven."},{"insert":" “[Paul’s]…efforts in the field of education have led to a position of unmatched importance in the educational working out of the real meaning of critical thinking…It is fair to say that it represents the first really massive effort to deal with the huge range of pedagogical and logical issues that emerge when we really turn our critical thinking skills toward the subject of teaching critical thinking.”"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" "},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"David Perkins."},{"insert":" “Richard Paul has contributed to the current interest in cultivating critical and creative thinking one of the simplest and most powerful notions around: the concept of “strong sense” critical thinking, that sort of critical thinking that confronts deep and genuine conflicts of values and perspectives. In doing so, Paul has given us not just a philosophical distinction but an ideal to strive for. Quite rightly pointing out that it is all too easy to settle for modest technical improvements in the practice of thinking, Paul presses the point that this is not enough — indeed, if this is all the enterprise amounts to, it is hardly worth undertaking."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" \nIn the light of these highly positive reviews, it seemed that the Foundation’s intellectual reform efforts (the integration of research, theory, and practice that I and my colleagues at the Foundation for Critical Thinking were constructing) would represent a paradigm in the field. Our conference was drawing large numbers, participants were increasingly communicating in non-technical language, and there were few objecting to the three concept sets we were emphasizing (elements, standards, traits). However, in the mid to late 1980s, a variety of problems began to emerge in part of the field of Critical Thinking Studies (some in theory, some in application, and some due to vested interest).\n \n \nFor one, most philosophers focused their attention on the writing of a textbook for stand-alone courses in critical thinking conceived, often, again, as formal or informal logic. These textbooks became ends in themselves, not frameworks for critical thinking across the disciplines. For another, many of the early leaders did not seem willing to do the pedagogical experimentation necessary to bring substantive critical thinking, in any number of ways, across the disciplines.\n\nFew philosophers, even those whose courses in critical thinking represented the bulk of their instruction, focused on research in teaching critical thinking across the disciplines. Serious educational reform presupposes serious intellectual work (targeting critical thinking across the disciplines). Working out the underpinnings of the pedagogy of critical thinking (adequate for the integration of theory, research, and practice) was pursued by a relative few. Many academics coming to the conference in critical thinking and educational reform were not leaving the conference primed to do the intellectual work that results in new ways to teach and learn (across the disciplines). This leads us to our second conference goal.\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"B. The International Conference"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nThe goal of the International Conference was to focus scholarship on conceptualizing the idea of critical thinking in diverse directions (i.e. on developing a field of studies of critical thinking across the disciplines). Regarding this second goal, our initial efforts were unsatisfactory. By the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, it was clear to the fellows at the Foundation for Critical Thinking that the vast majority of theoreticians invited to the International Conference on Critical Thinking and Educational Reform did not share a common agenda. Though respectful of others’ work, they appeared to us to be more concerned with developing ideas (other than ideas essential to critical thinking) from their own fields of specialization (based on technical terms from their home disciplines) rather than collaborating to develop best practices for teaching CT across the disciplines. Rather than experiencing harmony and evolution at the conference, attendees were experiencing a confusing array of approaches to critical thinking, from formal and informal logic, to cognitive psychology, to critical theory, to feminism, to a variety based explicitly on specific academic disciplines, and beyond. Much of this was alienating and divisive, and by the mid 1990’s it was no longer economically viable, nor intellectually justified, for the Foundation to finance non-convergent work. So we shifted our focus (Paul, Elder, and Nosich). We saw the shift we called for as choosing rigor and the long run over popularity and the short run.\n \nIn any case, we shifted our invitation focus to researchers who showed some interest in the problems inherent in decoding the logic of the disciplines: the logic of biology, the logic of chemistry, the logic of history, the logic of sociology, the logic of economics. In other words, we focused our emphasis on critical thinking across the disciplines. The response was initially less than satisfactory.\n \nWe found that part of the problem was that many academicians were not motivated to do research on problems not recognized as significant by journals within their home disciplines. Others were uncomfortable working beyond their home discipline. Many found it difficult to obtain funding for research that went beyond their discipline.\n \nThere were also problems generated by specialists attempting to communicate with conference attendees not in their specialty. For example, those who attended sessions designed by philosophers often found that they were passively listening to didactic lectures in (to them) confusing philosophical language.\n \nAfter much agonizing and long discussions, we made the decision to focus our attention on actual models of critical thinking across one or more disciplines or domains of thought. At the same time we focused attention not on thinking per se, but on the interplay of the affective and the cognitive.\n \nWe were also keen to model instructional strategies that foster critical thinking in teaching and learning. Such modeling is essential to bringing critical thinking across the disciplines.\n \nThese decisions caused an apparent grievance for some (who apparently took the changes personally); and I have been "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"persona non grata "},{"insert":"with some others (mainly informal logicians) ever since. My work, which was previously favorably reviewed (by such people as Siegel, Weddle, Johnson. Blair, Barell, Ruggiero, Scriven, Fisher, Michelli, Weinstein) seemed to drop from the critical interest of the informal logic and philosophical reasoning cadre. My consolation was that, ultimately, the intellectual “black ball,” if that is what it is, seems confined to a relatively small and specialized few.\n \nIn the meantime, and not unaffected by these realities, the need to develop critical thinking across the disciplines had been left by many to languish. Due to a system of education (including teacher training programs) which does not embrace a substantive conception of critical thinking, few teachers can articulate or cite evidence of teaching for critical thinking (see, e.g. Paul, 1997; Thomas, 1999);\n evidence continues to mount that most students are not learning it either (see, e.g. Cas-Lotto, J. and Benner, M., 2006; Bok 2006; Blaich, 2007; Arum and Roksa, 2011). While many philosophers and others continue to re-hash theoretical debates with little practical value to teachers, students, or individuals trying to live self-examined lives, the Foundation for Critical Thinking fellows focus on the contextualizations called for in systematically applying critical thinking across the disciplines.\n \nThe fact is that those philosophers who purport to be interested in critical thinking but who fail to make the concept accessible to people interested in developing critical thinking skills, abilities and traits, who say they are interested in the advancement of critical thinking but do nothing to foster a substantive and accessible conception of it across the disciplines, who develop theory and write articles focused on a narrow, specialized interest, thus conceptualizing critical thinking in a narrow, specialized manner, collectively stand in the way of the development of critically-centered universities and societies. The work of the Foundation for Critical Thinking, then, is largely ignored by a cadre of Informal logicians and various other philosophers whose Interest in critical thinking is not in the development of critical societies, or in the art of living an examined life, or in the process of bringing critical thinking realistically and effectively across the disciplines.\n \nAs mentioned, in the 1980s a number of well-known philosophers critiqued my work in highly positive terms (see the appendix for more examples), but in the past two decades a number of these have largely ignored my work, as they have ignored the work of my colleagues Linda Elder, Gerald Nosich, Enoch Hale and Rush Cosgrove.\n \nI give these examples, not because the work of the Foundation for Critical Thinking fellows is dependent on the imprimatur approval of informal logicians, or philosophers in general, come to that. Here is some general information that documents the recognition of the work of the Foundation fellows and scholars (Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Gerald Nosich, Enoch Hale, et al. in the national and international educational communities):\n \nThe Foundation for Critical Thinking receives more than 150,000 unique visits per month on our website, from more than 100 countries. It reaches out to educators at all levels, in all subjects and disciplines, and develops curriculum materials to achieve this end. The Foundation for Critical Thinking generates and publishes critical thinking books and guides for those interested in developing their reasoning abilities. In the past 32 years, scholars at the Foundation for Critical Thinking have collectively written eleven books and twenty-three thinker’s guides on critical thinking. Moreover, the Foundation sponsors conferences, academies, seminars and workshops in critical thinking. Tens of thousands of educators have attended the Foundation’s conferences and workshops since its inception. Each year the Foundation for Critical Thinking sends out complementary thinker’s guides to somewhere between 100,000 and 200,000 educators to introduce them to a rich concept of critical thinking. In the past 10 years, more than a million such thinker’s guides have been sent to educators. Approximately 700,000 have been sold (to educators at all levels in all major disciplines). The written works of the Foundation for Critical Thinking fellows have been translated into languages such as Spanish, French, Japanese, Chinese, German, Turkish and Arabic. Many of these translations can be downloaded at no charge from the Foundation website."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" \nThe visibility and out-reach of the Foundation for Critical Thinking continues to grow through its integrated approach to the theory, research, and pedagogical application of critical thinking, and in the light of its emphasis on fostering critical thinking across the curriculum. We believe we have now developed more instructional books, thinker’s guides and materials than any other group of theoreticians. We have more resources freely accessible on our website, and we offer more professional development programs, and on-line courses, and have reached more educators with our work than any other internationally active critical thinking organization.\n \nIt is ironic, then, in the light of the professional commendation that was accorded to the integration of our early work (particularly the integration of research, theory, and practice) that I was peremptorily removed from the advisory board of AILACT (the informal logic association), with no explanation. (The device used was the “removing” of everyone from the board to be followed by most of them being returned routinely).\n \nWhat is significant in this transparent marginalization? In my view it stands as “proof” that academic politics are very much alive. Even academics supposedly committed to fair-minded critical thinking are not above some small blows below the belt.\n"}]}

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Linda Elder
Sep 08, 2021 • 9d ago
Don’t Be Fooled by the Words People Use: Look Underneath Words to Unspoken Realities

{"ops":[{"insert":"We humans tend to have very little understanding of the role words play in how we experience reality. From the beginning of life, we are immersed in words, language, and ideas. For example, parents point to an object or person and say the associated word to the child—this is a chair. This is a spoon. This is Mommy, Daddy, baby, bad, good, nice, mean, ugly, pretty. With these, and many other, words we form beliefs. (“I am good.” “I have the best Mommy and Daddy.” “Some people are bad.” “These kinds of things are ugly or disgusting.”)\n \nBecause of our native sociocentricity, we often form our beliefs in accordance with approval or disapproval. We tend to uncritically assume the approved views of society. As we grow and age, we form ideologies, perspectives, and worldviews, based on the words and meanings we put together in our minds\nin their various configurations. These beliefs, based in words, form the fabric of our minds; they determine how we see the world, the assumptions we formulate, and the theories we use to figure things\nout.\n \nWe often choose words to serve our selfish interests or maintain our sociocentric viewpoint. The concept of doublespeak, which refers to the use of language to deliberately disguise or distort the root meaning of words, colorfully illustrates this point. Consider the following examples:\n\n• The term collateral damage covers up the reality of innocent people being killed during war.\n• Children in our country are taught to understand the world as it is, whereas Cuban (or Russian, or Iranian, or Libyan) children are brainwashed (into cultural ideologies).\n• Politicians aren’t spending taxpayer money; they are investing it for the future.\n• We are freedom fighters; they are terrorists—though we both engage in similar unethical behavior.\n• We stand for justice; they are for oppression.\n• We are self-confident, whereas they (whoever opposes us) are arrogant.\n• When our allies suffer loss of life at an enemy’s hands, we call it an attack in cold blood; when our enemies suffer loss of life at our hands, we call it retaliation.\n• The U.S. Government uses the term rendition to refer to people it illegally kidnaps and imprisons in foreign countries, beyond the reach of the law, in order to torture them if our government deem it necessary (because U.S. laws forbid such torture on U.S. ground).\n• We call farm animals livestock rather than, for instance, animals we kill to eat. We use the terms meat and steak and poultry rather than dead animal flesh. (Imagine ordering “dead animal flesh” at a restaurant.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Consider, as well, the following verbal disguises:"},{"insert":"\n• We sometimes say, “I love you,” when our behavior implies “you’ll do until someone better comes along.”\n• We sometimes say, “I need my freedom,” when our behavior implies “I don’t want to accept responsibility for my own children.”\n• We sometimes say, “No one is perfect,” when our behavior implies “I am obscuring much more than occasional peccadillos.”\n• We sometimes say, “I need more love,” when our behavior implies “I need more sex.”\n• We sometimes say, “She is a loose woman,” when her behavior simply implies “she is exploring her sexuality in nonconventional ways.”\n• We sometimes say, “I just like foods that taste good” when our behavior implies “I am addicted to unhealthy foods.”\n• We sometimes say, “I’m trying to save money,” when our behavior implies “I am addicted to shopping.”\n \nThe words we choose determine how we think of “reality.” If you don’t go along with the unreasonable thinking of your colleagues, for instance, you might be considered “uncooperative.” To “cooperate,”\naccording to this logic, means accepting the thinking of the group, however irrational.\n \nConsider the use of “waterboarding,” which has been used by the U.S. government to torture people considered “enemies.” Waterboarding, which sounds like something fun you might do with a surfboard\nin the ocean, is actually a label for the act of pouring water into a person’s face while he is lying on his back, to take him to the brink of drowning, and doing this repeatedly. By using a term like  “waterboarding,” we can obscure the fact that we are torturing people. The torture is camouflaged and minimized. We can foster a positive image of ourselves and hide the gruesome reality.\n \nIn brief, your behavior comes predominantly from your conceptualizations of reality and how you see yourself relating to those realities (through your conceptualizations). These conceptualizations are\ndeeply connected to the words you choose.\n \nCritical thinkers are meticulous in their word choice. If they say, “I love you,” you can readily see love implicit in their actions toward you. If they say, “I am trying to live the examined life,” you can see\nthem living more and more rationally over time. Critical thinkers try to mirror, or conceptualize, in their minds what is truly happening. They try to use the words that capture what is truly happening. They\ncommand their behavior through the words they choose. For example, “I am in charge of my life.” “I make the decisions that determine my future.” “I am the captain of my ship.” They recognize that\nself-deception often causes them to conceptualize things in ways that serve their interests rather than the truth.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Be on the lookout for…"},{"insert":"\n…the misuse of words. Notice when others use words to favor their interests or advantage. Notice when people use words in ways that don’t fit what is truly happening. Look for explanations that don’t\nseem accurate or logical. Examine the words you choose. Do you choose words to situate things so you can (selfishly) get more for you?\n \nTo better understand situations and people, mentally strip the words off the things and try to see what is truly there. General semanticists tell us: The word is not the thing. When we internalize this insight,\nwe have a powerful tool for gaining command of our definitions and, consequently, our lives.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Strategies for choosing words more carefully:"},{"insert":"\n• When in a disagreement with someone, state as accurately as possible (in good faith) that person’s viewpoint. Notice the words you use to describe his or her viewpoint. Identify different words that might better capture the viewpoint. Present your articulation to the person you are in disagreement with, if you can. Ask whether your words adequately capture this person’s viewpoint. If not, rearticulate the viewpoint until the other person is satisfied.\n \n• Notice yourself using words in ways that are irrational or that hide what is actually happening in your thinking. What are you hiding from? What are you trying not to see in your thinking? What are you trying not to face about something in your life? For instance, people who feel trapped in their work situation\noften use language that in essence keeps them trapped. Instead of using words that trap you, use words that free you. Instead of saying, “There is nothing I can do to change my situation,” say rather, “There is something I can do to change my situation. I just need to figure out what that is and start moving in that\ndirection.” The first way of talking traps you; the second sets you free.\n \n• Notice the way others use words. Notice when they use words in ways not reasonably justifiable in context.\n \n• Notice when people use words in ways that get them more of what they want without having to consider the rights of others. (An example is when people say they “need” things when they actually just “want” them. This is a common phenomenon in capitalistic countries that leads to overproduction of certain\nproducts and the waste of Earth’s resources.)\n \n• Notice when people use words in demeaning ways. For instance, for more than 100 years, homophobic people have used derogatory words and expressions in referring to homosexuals—such as homo, that way, a bit funny, a friend of Dorothy, and so on. These words then hold them hostage, defining their perspectives on homosexuality and sometimes leading to “hate crimes” or other unethical behavior.\n \n• When in a disagreement with someone, instead of giving your interpretation (conceptualization) of the situation, just state the facts. Instead of saying, “You always do X and you never do Y,” say, “This is what I see happening in this situation. Here are the facts. Do you agree with the facts as I have stated them? What is the most reasonable way to interpret these facts?” Be open to the possibility that you are misrepresenting the facts as you go through this exercise, especially if your ego is involved.\n \n• Try to become keenly aware of your word choice. Make every word you say represent the truth or the situation as well as possible. Notice how few people have this level of command of their words, and therefore, their thoughts and the quality of their life.\n \n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Notes:"},{"insert":"\n \nThis blog piece was adapted from "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"30 Days to Better Thinking and Better Living"},{"insert":" by Linda Elder and Richard Paul, 2013, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, p.. 97-102)\n \nSome of these examples were taken from, June 11, 2012.\n \nIt might be helpful to recognize that the concept of a concept is a difficult concept to teach. We must use ideas to explain ideas. We rely on concepts to understand other concepts: hence the difficult nature of the material in this blog. Refer to the glossary term for concept here: "},{"attributes":{"color":"#0563c1","link":""},"insert":""},{"insert":" .\n \nFor more on concepts, read John Wilson’s book, "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Thinking with Concepts"},{"insert":" (1970), as well as Stuart Chase’s book, "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"The Tyranny of Words"},{"insert":" (1959).\n"}]}

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Richard Paul Archives
Sep 01, 2021 • 16d ago
Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College-University Curriculum Part I (Part 4 of 8)

{"ops":[{"insert":"This article was published in the Fall 2011 issue of Sonoma State University’s"},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":" Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines"},{"insert":" (vol. 26, no. 3) and was titled, “Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College/University Curriculum Part I.” (Part II was published in the Spring 2012 issue.) The piece was divided into eight sections:\n\nAbstract"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Introduction"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"I. My Intellectual Journey"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"II. Barriers to the Cultivation of Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"III. Forms and Manifestations of Critical Thinking, Mapping the Field"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"IV. The Establishment of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"V. Academic Departments, Faculty and Administrators Generally Fail to Foster Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"VI Conclusion"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"\nThe fifth of these appears below.\n \n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"III. Forms and Manifestations of Critical Thinking, Mapping the Field"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nPhilosophers claiming to teach students critical thinking in an authentic way owe the faculty at large a robust and intelligible conception of the diverse forms and manifestations of critical thinking and the manner in which those forms interrelate. With such a conception it becomes possible to account for the unity and diversity of critical thinking studies. Instead of fruitless argumentation as to which approach is “correct,” diversely oriented theoreticians can make clear why they have chosen a given approach.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"A. Assessing Frameworks for Thinking Using Six Polarities"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"insert":{"image":"data:image/jpeg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQEAYABgAAD/4RD6RXhpZgAATU0AKgAAAAgABQESAAMAAAABAAEAAAE7AAIAAAAMAAAIVodpAAQAAAABAAAIYpydAAEAAAAYAAAQ2uocAAcAAAgMAAAASgAAAAAc6gAAAAgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFdvcmsgTGFwdG9wAAAFkAMAAgAAABQAABCwkAQAAgAAABQAABDEkpEAAgAAAAM3NwAAkpIAAgAAAAM3NwAA6hwABwAACAwAAAikAAAAABzqAAAACAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA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"}},{"insert":"\n\nEvery approach to critical thinking can be better"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" understood by mapping it systematically on each of the following six polarities. For example, you can use them to identify where your approach to critical thinking falls in each of these categories."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach to critical thinking implicit or"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"color":"#242021","bold":true},"insert":" explicit? "},{"insert":"Most faculty approach critical thinking in an"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" implicit rather than an explicit manner. They believe that one can learn critical thinking best by working under mentors who model critical thinking in their reading, writing, speaking, and listening — without calling explicit attention to the fact that they are doing so. (See Cosgrove, 2011)."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach global or specialized?"},{"insert":" There"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" are concepts that apply to critical thinking across the disciplines. To the extent that there are, the nature or character of critical thinking in one discipline re-enforces the nature and character of critical thinking in the others. Nevertheless, there are also discipline-specific critical thinking concepts and principles, skills and abilities."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach systematic or episodic?"},{"insert":" One"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" can approach critical thinking as a set of concepts and principles inherent in all thought within a discipline, on the one hand, or restrict it to periodic relevance, on the other. Those who approach critical thinking as episodic think of it as relevant only in special circumstances, usually when facing a difficult or complex problem. In such a case, critical thinking typically shows up in textbooks in stand-alone boxes, titled something like “Critical Thinking Problem” or “Critical Thinking Questions.”"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach Socratic or sophistic?"},{"insert":" This"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" distinction is crucial because humans often use their criticality to “win” an argument or gain advantage over others. They are concerned with their vested interests above all else. In contrast, there are some people who develop as fair-minded thinkers and strive to face the truth, even if the truth does not put them in a favourable light. Socrates symbolizes this latter case (people with intellectual integrity and intellectual empathy). Most politicians are more likely to think habitually in a sophistic manner."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nSophistry, in contrast, symbolizes those interested"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" only in winning. We sometimes mark this distinction by the terms “strong sense” or “weak sense” critical thinking. For example, when philosophers attempt to persuade the faculty to restrict the teaching of critical thinking courses to those candidates with an advanced degree in philosophy, or claim that philosophers have a special competence in critical thinking (that makes them uniquely qualified to teach critical thinking), they use critical thinking (in my view) in a weak or sophistic sense. Highly skilled intellectuals can be self-deceived in their thought; as can, indeed, any given human whatsoever, when her or his vested interests are involved. If the danger of sophistic critical thinking is not recognized and combated, our communities and societies will continue to be dominated by sophistic thought. Where you stand in this polarity is, in my view, the most significant fact about your own criticality. I have argued for the significance of this fact for more than 30 years."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach based in ordinary or technical"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"color":"#242021","bold":true},"insert":" language? "},{"insert":"Critical thinking can be approached in terms"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" of specialized or technical concepts and principles or, conversely, in terms of natural or non-technical concepts and principles. When it is approached as a specialized language, it has limited use. For instance, when it is understood in terms of formal logic, only those who understand formal logic can use it. When it is understood in terms of theory of argumentation, only those who study argumentation theoretically have access to it. When it is understood in terms of any specialized discipline, such as informal logic, analytic philosophy, rhetoric, cognitive psychology, and so on, only those people who study and think within these disciplines have entrée into it. Further, it is questionable as to how and to what extent any such approach can actually help people reason through life’s real and often complex issues. (For instance, how many philosophers actually use formal logic formulas [or constructs in theory of argumentation] to figure out solutions to issues implicit in their personal relationships?) Conversely, when the concepts embedded in natural languages (such as English, Chinese, Arabic, Spanish, and so on) are used as foundations of critical thinking, all (potentially) who speak natural languages have access to them."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"B. On the Scope of Critical Thinking"},{"insert":"\n\nSome theoreticians (mostly philosophers) assume that"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" reasoning and argumentation are the only constructions in which critical thinking is manifested. For instance, consider the journal "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Informal Logic"},{"insert":", sub-titled, "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Reasoning and"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021","italic":true},"insert":" Argumentation in Theory and Practice. "},{"insert":"A close examination of articles in this journal reveals that the editors of"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" this journal believe that critical thinking is best understood as a mode of thinking exclusively studied and assessed in reasoning and argumentation studies. But reasoning and argumentation do not begin to encompass the wide field of intellectual constructs relevant to critical analysis. For example, intellectual constructions open to critical analysis include all of the following (and more):"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"essays, theories, knowledge claims, assumptions, math problems, world views, concepts, information, inferences, novels, poems, plays, schools of thought, critical evaluations, editorials, news articles, news stories, budgets, financial plans, axiomatic systems, accounting documents, architectural designs, engineering designs, cases, number systems, classificatory systems, intellectual distinctions, histories, experiments, critique of mathematical constructs, critiques of art of whatever sort, background logic, understandings, interpretations, and so on, and on and on and on."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"No finite list of intellectual constructs could exhaust the potential engagements about which a thinker might reflect critically. Whenever the human intellect is engaged, it can do so critically or uncritically. It can pursue pathways of the mind in any direction whatsoever. Therefore it can reflect upon an unlimited number of intellectual constructs. Logicians of any stripe find it hard to grasp critical thought in this way, so wedded as they are to reasoning and argumentation. Hence, critical thinking, as conceived by argumentation theorists and informal logicians, is not of much use in analyzing ways to bring critical thinking across the disciplines."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nTo put this another way, critical thinking across the"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" disciplines is not illuminated by the logic of terms essential to formal logic, such as:"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nAffirmation, negation, conjunction, disjunction, truth values, conditionality, argument"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" indicators, validity, formal fallacies, informal fallacies, syllogism, statistical syllogism, probability, conditionals, disjunctive syllogism, truth-functional logic, categorical sentences, Venn diagrams, quantificational schemata, polyadic problems, classes, class theory, variant theories of classes, equivalence, deductive technique, validity of quantificational schemata, existence and singular inference, identity, conversion of quantifiers, extension of quantification."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nRather it is illuminated much more by the logic of"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" terms such as:"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nPurpose, goal, objective, question, problem,"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" issue, information, data, fact, reasons, reason, observations, experiences, evidence, interpretation, inference, conclusion, solution, concept, theory, definitions, laws, principles, models, explanation, assumption, presupposition, axioms, implications, consequences, point of view, frame of reference, perspective, orientation, world view, clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, fairness, logic, logical, the logic of a question, the logic of a situation, the logic of a discipline, the logic of thought, the logic of action, context, contextualization, freedom, emancipation, self-direction, self-discipline, self-reflection, egocentrism, socio-centrism, self-deception, intellectual traits, intellectual humility, confidence in reason, intellectual perseverance, fair-mindedness, intellectual courage, intellectual empathy, intellectual autonomy, intellectual integrity, knowledge, subjectivity, judgment, one-system question, no-system question, multi-system question, elements of thought, standards of thought, traits of mind, insight, prejudice, way of life, way of being, critical thinking, critical mind, critical society, socialization, education, emancipation."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"}]}

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Linda Elder
Aug 29, 2021 • 19d ago
How do we think critically about the questions we face such as whether to get the COVID19 vaccination?

{"ops":[{"insert":"Critical thinking enables us to reason with skill and responsibility through the issues, problems, and opportunities we face. Critical thinking helps us reason with discipline through significant questions. When we have developed critical thinking skills, abilities and characteristics, we recognize that every question we reason through requires that we achieve intellectual tasks "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"specific to that question"},{"insert":". But this is true only if we have internalized the concepts and principles embedded in a rich conception of fairminded critical thinking.\n \nOnce we have achieved understanding of a rich concept of critical thinking, and when we are actively committed to critical reasoning, we can effectively reason through questions such as: Should I get the COVID 19 vaccination?\n \nYet, the question: "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Should I get the COVID 19 vaccination?"},{"insert":" has been treated and is being treated by some as a political question. It is also being treated as a question of personal preference or as a question pertaining to one’s individual rights. This question is neither a political question, nor a question of personal preference, nor, fundamentally about individual rights. Instead, it is a "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"scientific question"},{"insert":" with an important "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"ethical dimension"},{"insert":". First, the question calls on us to gather the relevant scientific information needed to determine whether vaccinations significantly diminished the power of COVID19 and hence keep us significantly safer. For this scientific information we must rely upon the best scientific thinking about the vaccination, its benefits and its risks. Unless you are a scientist who specializes in COVID19 vaccinations, you will need to rely on the best expert thinking being done by the scientists who know the most about these vaccinations. Further, because we can easily spread the COVID19 virus without even knowing we are doing so, and because we interact with other humans who may easily contract COVID19 from us should we be carriers, we are ethically obligated to consider how our decision to vaccinate or not may affect others with whom we come into contact. Some naïve or close-minded thinkers have argued that we cannot rely on scientists for guidance because they “keep changing their minds.” A critical thinker recognizes this as a matter of course, when new information is obtained that requires scientific experts to change their minds.\n \nThe COVID19 virus should remind us of how intertwined we are as human, one with another. We face a public health crisis and a public health tragedy of tremendous proportions, due to misinformation on COVID19 – both its effects and its vaccinations, and do to the stubborn arrogant nature of the human species. Many will continue to die, primarily according to the principle of "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"the individual’s right to choose"},{"insert":". It must be said that, indeed, everyone has a right to die by avoiding that which would keep them alive, but not if that right infringes upon the rights of others to live and to remain healthy. In other words, when our decisions necessarily affect others, we are ethically obligated to consider those others, whether we want to do so or not. Critical reasoning requires it of us. No amount of hiding under the banner of individual rights will stand under such circumstances.\n \nUnfortunately, many humans are either willfully ignorant or fall prey to sociocentrism in following the thinking of those who, though they reason poorly, can effectively convince others of their views.\n \nIt is a sad day in the life of humans when we cannot make simple critical thinking moves that would keep us alive and healthy. But this is nothing new. Many people willfully ignore information that would lead them to a higher level of health and well-being. That apparently is their choice, even though it may be costly in medical terms for which we all pay. But when these same people refuse to become inoculated for the common good, to protect not primarily themselves, but to protect everyone, they show themselves to be both narrowminded and callous to the rights and needs of others.\n \nWhat we need is a world filled with people committed to ethical critical thinking, and who are willing to do the work to become critical thinkers. Our schools, colleges and universities still largely ignore fairminded critical thinking, whatever their rhetoric. Therefore, it is no surprise that many people are swept along by superstition, group think, conspiracy theories and all manner of bizarre ideologies.\n \nCritical thinking theory, which blossomed in earnest in the late 1970’s, offers us many tools for improving our thinking. It is time we take these tools seriously, for the good of all people and all other sentient thinkers.\n \nFor more on how to approach questions with discipline, read:\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#0563c1","link":""},"insert":""},{"insert":"\n"}]}

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Richard Paul Archives
Aug 25, 2021 • 23d ago
Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College/University Curriculum Part I (Part 4 of 8)

{"ops":[{"insert":"This article was published in the Fall 2011 issue of Sonoma State University’s"},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":" Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines"},{"insert":" (vol. 26, no. 3) and was titled, “Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College/University Curriculum Part I.” (Part II was published in the Spring 2012 issue.)\n \nThe piece was divided into eight sections:\n\nAbstract"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Introduction"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"I. My Intellectual Journey"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"II. Barriers to the Cultivation of Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"III. Forms and Manifestations of Critical Thinking, Mapping the Field"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"IV. The Establishment of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"V. Academic Departments, Faculty and Administrators Generally Fail to Foster Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"VI Conclusion"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"\nThe fourth of these appears below.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"II. Barriers to the Cultivation of Critical Thinking"},{"insert":"\n \nAt present (2012), there are still formidable barriers to the cultivation of fair-minded critical communities. I will comment briefly on some manifestations of these barriers. Though I will consider both academic and non-academic sources of impediments, I will emphasize the academic. Among the academic I will focus on those created by higher education departmental politics, especially those resulting from the vested interests of academic departments. I will touch upon impediments created by faculty and academic departments in general and, to a lesser extent, those created by collegiate bureaucratic interests. I focus on these particulars: 1) because they represent paradigm cases of a lack of serious intellectual activity in the bureaucratic life of higher education and 2) because I have lived first-hand the problems I lay bare in what follows. Finally, I will emphasize the barriers created by egocentric and sociocentric thought in general. I will begin with some reflections suggested by the history of critical thinking.\n\n "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"A. Insights From the History of Critical Thinking"},{"insert":"\n\nTo me, Socrates (470-399 B.C.E.) is the most original and influential figure in the history of critical thinking. He not only recognized the defining role that thinking plays in the lives of humans (that we are "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"homo sapiens"},{"insert":", the species that thinks), he also saw that we are not by nature "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"critical "},{"insert":"thinkers ("},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"homo criticus"},{"insert":", the species that thinks critically). He recognized that human thinking is often deeply flawed and that many intelligent humans (principally those whose thinking is characteristically sophistic, manipulative, and self-deceptive) are interested in thinking not to gain insight into the flawed nature of their own thinking but rather to gain control, influence, and status in the struggle for wealth and power in everyday human affairs.\n \nThis duality continues in the human struggle for power to this day, that is, Socratic vs. sophistic thought: what I have often characterized as critical thinking in a “strong” vs. critical thinking in a “weak” sense. Sophistic critical thinking, which is critical thinking tailored to win in a power struggle, continues to thrive and indeed is arguably the more dominant of the two. Many, if not most, people reflect on their thinking not to serve the ends of emancipation and intellectual integrity, but rather to acquire skills and insights that advantage them in the struggle for power in human affairs.\n\nSocrates “claimed the right of independent criticism of all institutions and of politicians who did not seem to know what they were doing or [who] compromised their principles” (Kidd, 1967, p. 482). So too should we all. All conscientious thinkers should weigh-in on the side of commitment to the ideal implicit in Socrates’ life and practice: hence to the importance of intellectual integrity, intellectual autonomy, intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, intellectual perseverance, and human emancipation.\n \nAgain, if there is one truth that the history of critical thinking teaches, it is that reason is regularly ruled by force. If there is one truth that all Socratic critical thought assumes, it is that force should be regularly ruled by reason. Much of the history of human thought (critical thought especially) demonstrates how force has traditionally triumphed over reason. The Middle Ages, for example, testify to a period of time in which reason was forcefully subjugated by religious authorities. During this time, the feudal hierarchy and the Church controlled virtually all authority and power, and used the two in tandem to suppress dissenting views. Reason functioned mainly as a rationalization of the status quo. If you happened to be an orthodox believer (as, for example, Thomas Aquinas was), you were free to use reason to defend established views. All critical thinking was, in effect, selectively used, since all public discourse was guaranteed to come down on the side of the reigning power (or be suppressed). A history that documented the relationship of force and reason would be a many-volumed set.\n\nOf course, force and violence may be on the decline. But we can’t be sure of this, for we lack a benchmark history of sophistic thinking in human life. In time such a history may be written. Where force rules, freedom of thought, and hence fair-minded critical thought, cannot. As long as people are punished for dissenting from the status quo, most people will keep their criticisms of the status quo to themselves. While a few people may be ready to make sacrifices for freedom of speech, the vast majority of people tacitly chose lives of silent conformity. Most quickly learn that punishments are meted out to those who do not line up behind the views and thinking of those dominant in the structure of power. In short, though the extent of the use of force has fluctuated historically, it has repeatedly played a powerful, if not a defining role, in human life.\n \nThe society envisioned by Socrates is at best a long time coming, and, to my eyes, doesn’t seem even distantly on the horizon. The field of critical thinking studies would be well served by multiple histories of critical thinking each written from a different point of view. Well-documented histories of critical thinking represent an area of research still needed.\n\nNevertheless, a brief look at the recent history of critical thinking (the last 50 years) may be useful in suggesting the barriers we face today in fostering critical thinking in education and human societies. In the next section I will offer some of my thoughts on this history (I am under no illusion that my view tells all the tales that need to be told. I will emphasize some of the problems that some academic departments have created for those who advocate substantive critical thinking. In my view, these problems are stumbling blocks to bringing critical thinking across the curriculum and, thus, ultimately into everyday social, political, and economic life. (It goes without saying that many historical questions could usefully be raised about the bad faith politics in this era).\n\n "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"B. The History of Education: Money and the Long View"},{"insert":"\n\nAt every step along the way in the history of schooling, economics (money) rears its ugly head. In my view, no one can ignore the role of wealth in academic affairs and still construct a faithful account of education as it exists in the real world. At every level, in every subject, in every important decision, money is there opening and closing doors, creating and destroying research, privileging and marginalizing persons, subjects, movements, ideologies and perspectives. As one modest example, I will suggest how philosophy departments in California have worked to control classes in critical thinking for their own funding.\n\n "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"C. Critical Thinking Rescues Many Philosophy Departments: A Personal Perception (and Call for Research)"},{"insert":"\n\nIn this brief section I will share my view of what I consider to be a destructive trend in higher education. Again, I focus on my experiences in higher education in California to exemplify my point. How far this trend has spread nationally and internationally needs to be researched so we can determine its extent and begin to reverse it. Remember that this is my view based on many years of working in the field of philosophy.\n\nEvery academic department has an interest in teaching students to think well within the discipline it represents. At the same time, most faculty, including philosophy faculty, do not, it seems to me, understand the role of critical thinking in this process. For instance, I well understand the fact that academic philosophers in California, more than faculty from any other discipline, “control” critical thinking through their frequent control of student requirements in critical thinking. Such faculty, in my experience, often do not sincerely and in good faith study to determine how accomplished practitioners in other disciplines engage in critical thinking. The end result is that philosophers who gain windfall numbers of FTEs by gaining control of courses that fulfill the state-wide critical thinking requirement do not discuss the problem of laying the foundations of critical thinking in such a way as to determine how foundations for critical thinking in freshman studies should be followed up in every other university course (to serve the need for critical thinking, ultimately, for all peoples in all nations). Much research could usefully be done in this area.\n \nThe mindset behind this troublesome practice comes in many forms. For example, when I became persuaded, while teaching a course in philosophical reasoning, that a sizeable percentage of philosophy majors were learning to be argumentative rather than learning to be fair-minded reasoners, my colleagues took immediate action against me. First, they tried to prevent me from teaching the course. Secondly, the department refused to consider the evidence I had that documented the problem in teaching and learning: namely, philosophy majors developing into “argumentative” rather than “empathic” reasoners. The dodge used to avoid discussing what I observed centered on the claim that the students in my philosophical reasoning class had not given me official permission to “study” them. My response to the department was that professors do not need permission to study the characteristics of their students’ work. Quite the contrary. In my view faculty studying the strengths and weaknesses of student reasoning is not only a professional right; it is a responsibility.\n \nA more general illustration of bad faith in the politics of numerous philosophy departments is the common practice of allowing courses in "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"formal "},{"insert":"logic to count as fulfilling critical thinking requirements, even though virtually no one (including the philosophers who teach formal logic) uses the cumbersome language of formal logic to critique human thought. To show how empty such a procedure would be, one need only examine the kinds of exercises typical of formal logic courses (see page 12 below). There is, of course, no reason to believe that what is taught in formal logic (or informal logic for that matter) will automatically transfer to other disciplines, nor is there reason to believe that those engaged in disciplinary thinking across the curriculum would have their thinking improved if they could somehow inject formal or informal logic strategies into their subject’s methodology.\n \nThe temptation, of course, is vested interest. If philosophy departments gain funding for their small upper division courses by teaching large critical thinking courses, then the very existence of the department will be protected. Thus it is reasonable to expect that there will be a strong temptation to seek control of institution-wide critical thinking requirements by philosophy departments (and/or by any other departments similarly threatened).\n \nAt the California university where I was a full professor for 35 years, the philosophy department specifically set out to persuade colleagues in other departments, and key administrators as well, to accept a required course in critical thinking and to accept that course being taught and administered exclusively by us, the philosophy department. I naively, and now with regret, supported this effort. Initially the department was unsuccessful (the school of natural sciences designed a course that focused on critical thinking in science, Science 101 Critical and Scientific Thinking). After a few years of teaching Science 101 as a general education “alternative” to a course in critical thinking (taught exclusively by the philosophy department) the school of natural science only irregularly taught the scientific thinking-centered course.\n\nThe result was that the philosophy department gained de facto control of the university wide requirement (A-3). The philosophy department gained control of the design and the hiring (hiring only philosophers to teach the course in “Critical Thinking” identified as “Philosophy 101”). Then the philosophy department gained support for formal logic (over my objection) as an option to the course labeled “Critical Thinking.” Philosophy controlled the design and hiring of the formal logic course, hiring only philosophers to teach it.\n \nAt the same time, the local junior college gained control of the design and hiring for required critical thinking courses at the college. The philosophy department there was successful in requiring a degree in philosophy as a necessary qualification to teach the basic critical thinking course. Thus, when a scholar with outstanding qualifications in research and pedagogy in critical thinking applied to teach a section of critical thinking at the junior college, her application was refused, the explanation given was that, though she had many significant publications in critical thinking studies, she lacked a degree in philosophy.\n \nThis junior college “explanation” implies that those who have degrees in philosophy are qualified to teach critical thinking while those with other degrees are not. I know of no evidence that supports the claim that philosophy graduates are routinely better critical thinkers (or better at teaching critical thinking, for that matter) than graduates of any number of other departments’ graduates. Research in this area is needed.\n \nI do not know to what extent philosophy departments across the higher education institutions in the country at large mirror the pattern of events regarding critical thinking and formal logic at the California State University and California state community colleges. Research that brings out the extent of these practices is needed. The fact is that critical thinking is relevant to all college and university courses and thus no subject area should be given, a priori, a proprietary right to it. The funding for critical thinking should go to those academic departments that conduct research and offer advanced courses in the theory and application of critical thinking, as would be the case with any other aspiring field of studies. In point of fact, all departments have the responsibility to teach whatever they teach in a critical manner. Students have a right to learn critical thinking by having to exercise it while thinking their way through all the disciplines they study. Philosophers are not in fact routinely qualified to teach students critical thinking in a single stand-alone course nor are they, in my view, qualified, without special preparation, to instruct other faculty in how to teach critical thinking systematically across the disciplines.\n\n "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"D. An Area of Bad Faith?"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nSince much of the funding that philosophy departments in the US receive from the university/college is generated by the large scale enrollment of students in introductory courses in critical thinking, and since universities and colleges expect the instruction students get in critical thinking courses to lay the foundation for all disciplines to be taught and learned in a "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"critical "},{"insert":"manner, philosophy departments have the responsibility to do the research into pedagogy and application that will enable them to provide leadership in critical thinking instruction across the university. Unfortunately, in my experience, very few departments are prepared to accept that responsibility. Certainly, it was not accepted by my department. For example, most philosophy departments have shown little interest in the research that the Foundation for Critical thinking has conducted (over 32 years) (1980-2012) in how critical thinking can be contextualized into content domains.\n \nMuch research has been conducted as a result of the sessions of the annual conference on critical thinking and educational reform (See Foundation for Critical Thinking International conference archives at www.criticalthinking. org) However, much more research is needed that demonstrates how to contextualize critical thinking into diverse subject domains. Of course, one might assume that philosophy departments ( to the extent they lay claim to a priority interest in critical thinking) would conduct the research necessary to develop explicit ways and means for how other departments can “follow up” on their putative, but in my experience typically superficial, example. In other words, as far as I can see, there is little motivation in academic disciplines generally to explore the interface of critical thinking and the thinking essential to all academic disciplines.\n \nFor example, canvassing the many hundreds of sessions of the International conference as a measure (from 1980 to 2012), I can only conclude that few departments are interested in developing the interface of critical thinking and the logic of their discipline. Consult the 22 Thinker’s Guides on the web site of the Foundation for Critical Thinking for extended examples of how one might begin to structure contextualizations of critical thinking across the disciplines. See the list (page 2 above).\n \nIn my experience, both philosophers and nonphilosophers tend to take the easy way out. It is rare for\n philosophers to arrange meetings on how to foster critical thinking across the disciplines. Once the political goal is achieved — i.e., once philosophy departments gain control of the critical thinking courses — perhaps there is little motivation remaining to do anything further. This certainly was my experience (40 plus years, six years as chair) with the politics of the philosophy department at a California State University. In any case, such (“how-can-we-teachcritical-thinking-across -the- disciplines?”) meetings are, in my experience, uncommon. Only a small number spring to mind. And these are at a college- or university-wide initiative, not usually at the initiative of philosophy departments themselves. This area needs further research to determine the extent to which my perceptions are not idiosyncratic.\n\n "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"E. Administrators Follow Suit"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"Many college and university administrators I have talked to have their own rationalizations for evading responsibility to insure that critical thought is in fact taught effectively across the curriculum. 1) In my experience, they rarely ask academic departments to explain how they are fostering critical thinking in their various courses and 2) they nevertheless include in their mission statements the claim that critical thinking is a primary university goal (and expected outcome) at their institution. By and large they allow those involved in teaching critical thinking to make of critical thinking what they will. Once again, I am generalizing from my experience. Further research would be welcome to verify or falsify my generalization.\n \nThe result seems to me predictable. Philosophy departments that gain control of critical thinking courses continue teaching their upper division classes as ever they have (often in a didactic manner), while those philosophers teaching stand-alone courses in critical thinking restrict their “research” to examining a variety of textbooks in formal or informal logic. They choose such a text and then teach it as if critical thinking were achieved in everyday life by applying the concepts of formal and informal logic to it. Again, more research would be welcome.\n \nI know of no philosopher who uses formal logic to deal with everyday problems. Indeed, it is my bet that very few who teach formal or informal logic do so critically. If you want to see for yourself, ask philosophers to discuss some examples that illustrate how they apply formal logic concepts to problems calling for critical thinking in everyday life. Also ask them to illustrate how they teach formal or informal logic in a critical manner. If they say “yes” then ask them to explain what changes they have made that demonstrate a divergence from the traditional didactic ways logic is classically taught. For my critique of traditional and modern formal deductive logic, see my dissertation "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Logic As Theory of Validation "},{"insert":"(1968).\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"F. Philosophers Gain Advantage in California"},{"insert":"\n\nIn academia as elsewhere in society, if you want to know what is going on, follow "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"the structure of power "},{"insert":"by exposing where vested interests lie and what and whom they serve. Assume that money is playing a significant role in all decision-making. You will soon find that important affairs are rarely disclosed by their public representations. In my experience, the important issues are rarely on the surface of academic politics. Let’s look at a few examples.\n \nIn 1980, just as the critical thinking “movement” was beginning to fire up, chancellor Dumke of the California State University issued an executive order (No. 338) defining and requiring six units of instruction in critical thinking (with impact on approximately 300,000 students). (Lazere,1987).\n \nHere is the essence of the order:\n\n Instruction in critical thinking is to be designed to achieve an understanding of the relationship of language to logic, which should lead to the ability to analyze, criticize, and advocate ideas, to reason inductively and deductively, and to reach factual or judgmental conclusions based on sound inferences drawn from unambiguous statements of knowledge or belief. The minimal competence to be expected at the successful conclusion of instruction in critical thinking should be the ability to distinguish fact from judgment, belief from knowledge, and skills in elementary inductive and deductive processes, including an understanding of the formal and informal fallacies of language and thought (p. 1).\n \nLet’s unpack this lofty language. First, this ambitious “executive order” is calling for much more than someone teaching a three or four unit course could reasonably hope to accomplish. Even the most highly skilled teachers, I would argue, could not accomplish this task as defined. In fact, most of the required learning outcomes in this directive are more reasonably expected from the best students after three or four years of excellent (Socratic) teaching at the graduate level rather than after one semester of standard didactic instruction. "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"In fact, a single college course (no matter how it is designed) cannot produce a disciplined critical mind"},{"insert":".\n \nConsider each of these goals separately:\n\nAchieve an understanding of the relationship of language to logic"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Develop the ability to analyze ideas,"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Develop the ability to criticize ideas,"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Develop the ability to advocate ideas"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Learn to reason inductively,"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Learn to reason deductively"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Develop the ability to reach factual or judgmental conclusions based on sound inferences drawn from unambiguous statements of knowledge or belief"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Develop the ability to distinguish fact from judgment"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Develop the ability to distinguish belief from knowledge"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Develop skills in elementary inductive and deductive processes"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Come to an understanding of the formal fallacies of language and thought"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Come to an understanding of the informal fallacies of language and thought"},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" \nMany philosophers teaching critical thinking focus on one or two of these tasks, usually numbers eleven and twelve on the list above. Most have had to take at least one course in deductive logic and that instruction usually included some formal and informal fallacies. So most philosophers have a model they can fall back on without having to develop new teaching strategies or understandings, let alone deep-seated dispositions or traits of mind.\n \nPhilosophy departments are not expected by their departments to do any research on critical thinking. Neither are they expected to be up to date on research in critical thinking. They are not expected to study the research into critical thinking pedagogy. Philosophers are not expected to attend critical thinking conferences. In fact, philosophers commonly describe Critical Thinking courses as courses in “baby logic.” By this term they imply that such courses are not academically deep.\n \nThis is an easy way out of critical thinking, no doubt. But it is not a good faith response to the growing call, and the growing need, for critical thinking in everyday life. It is clear that educational leaders and public citizens calling for critical thinking across the college curriculum want faculty to develop practical ways to cultivate critically educated persons. They are looking for higher skills of literacy (critical reading, critical writing, critical listening, critical speaking). They want students to learn to think at a higher level within content areas (for example, critical thinking in the learning and use of physics, chemistry, biology, math, sociology, anthropology, history, art, literature, engineering, medicine, law, and so forth). They want to raise the quality of political and ethical thought. They want a more reflective citizenry. They want more reasonable and humane people. They want, in short, a better world for everyone, a world that is more fair and just, where people are more fulfilled. "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Academia, despite the propaganda of universities to the contrary, has hardly begun to effectively teach for critical thinking across the disciplines."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":" "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"G. How to Insure That Critical Thinking Is Not Robust"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"One of the best ways to prevent critical thinking across the curriculum is give one particular discipline proprietary rights to it. When this happens, that favored discipline will likely control the criteria for hiring faculty to teach critical thinking — a state of affairs that exists in many universities today where fulfilling a “critical thinking unit requirement” is defined in terms of the successful completion of one or more critical thinking courses taught by philosophers. Once in control of the critical thinking requirement, philosophy departments in the U.S. are typically allowed to designate courses in formal or informal logic to fulfill the requirement.\n \nTo give you a sense of the technical nature of modern formal or symbolic logic imagine yourself spending a semester determining the validity or invalidity of “arguments” such as the following (Copi, p. 25):\n \nIf I work then I earn money, and if I don’t work then I enjoy myself. Therefore, if I don’t earn money then I enjoy myself."},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Had he married a beautiful woman he would have been disgusted. Had he been either jealous or disgusted he would have been unhappy. He was not unhappy. Therefore he did not marry either a beautiful woman or a homely one."},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"All mattresses are either soft or uncomfortable. No soft mattress is uncomfortable. Some mattresses are uncomfortable. Therefore some mattresses are not soft."},{"attributes":{"list":"ordered"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" \nTo the vast majority of students a steady diet of practice in analyzing and assessing arguments such as the above is proof that critical thinking is hopelessly irrelevant to their education and their life. This, I believe, is easily shown by interviewing students completing a course in formal logic. I suffered a special penalty as a professor by having to observe the tortured faces and hear the tortured voices of a formal logic practice room adjoining my own office. Semester after semester they droned on. For years I argued that formal logic courses should not be accepted to fulfill a university critical thinking requirement, to no avail. No one could offer any empirical research that established a correlation between skill in formal logic and skill in critical thought (in general). But lack of evidence does not concern the “true believers” in the efficacy of formal logic.\n \nA better case can be made for informal logic. But in my experience informal logicians have emphasized theory of informal logic (as against theory of critical thinking across the disciplines) and have largely ignored the mass of research by those who have recognized the inseparability of theory and practice of critical thinking. More on this presently.\n"}]}

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Richard Paul Archives
Aug 20, 2021 • 28d ago
Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College/University Curriculum Part I (Part 3 of 8)

{"ops":[{"insert":"This article was published in the Fall 2011 issue of "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Sonoma State University’s Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines"},{"insert":" (vol. 26, no. 3) and was titled, “Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College/University Curriculum Part I.” (Part II was published in the Spring 2012 issue.)\n \nThe piece was divided into eight sections:\n\n·        Abstract\n·        Introduction\n·        I. My Intellectual Journey\n·        II. Barriers to the Cultivation of Critical Thinking\n·        III. Forms and Manifestations of Critical Thinking, Mapping the Field\n·        IV. The Establishment of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking\n·        V. Academic Departments, Faculty and Administrators Generally Fail to Foster Critical Thinking\n·        VI Conclusion\n\nThe third of these appears below.\n\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"I. My Intellectual Journey"},{"insert":"\n \nMy journey with critical thinking started some fifty"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" or so years ago when I first began to question my own education or, more accurately, the lack thereof. But it started to crystallize a few years later in graduate school (University of California, Santa Barbara [1962], St. Louis University [1963], UCLA [1964], and the University of Cambridge [1965-66].)"},{"insert":"\n \nAt this time I was reading in such thinkers as Wittgenstein, Ryle, Berlin, J.L. Austin, and John Wisdom."},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" These readings pushed me in the direction of the critique of contemporary analysis of the logic of language, the logic of concepts, and the logic of questions. I began to ask questions like:"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"What does it take to develop the mind, deeply and truly? Are there inherent flaws and traps in human thought and if so how can we address them? What role does thought play in human life and how can we intervene and correct it when it is going wrong? How can we most effectively assess the role of thought in everyday life? What criteria do we habitually use to assess thinking, and which should we use? How can humans develop intellectual virtues (such as intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, intellectual integrity, intellectual autonomy, intellectual perseverance and fair-mindedness)? How can we overcome those who use critical thinking skills sophistically to serve vested interests at the expense of justice and the public interest?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nMy year of study under John Wisdom at Cambridge"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" (1965), followed by two years of correspondence with him (principally on the logic of questions) played a significant role in my development. I became convinced that there were, and are, fatal flaws in the present theory of logic focused, as it is, on validity and formal deductive inference. As it is, logic, both formal and informal are inadequate as instrumentalities appropriate to the analysis and assessment of reasoning (and other forms of human thought). The “substance” of reasoning is not focused upon in either. I argued that if we want to use logic to analyze and assess human thinking, our logic should be question-centered. I wrote a monograph entitled The Logic of Questions (1968), followed by a dissertation on Logic as Theory of Validation (a critique of classical and formal logic as a tool for assessing human reasoning) (1969). (Available from the library of the University of California at Santa Barbara and the Foundation for Critical Thinking web site at"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nThroughout the subsequent years to date, it became"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" increasingly clear to me that critical thinking has an affective, and an ethical, side, without which much skilled thinking simply serves narrow vested interests and, more often than not, is used to suppress intellectual freedom. For example, much human intelligence is routinely used in everyday life to rationalize unjustifiable force, to justify coercion, intimidation and oppression. A crucial question becomes, “How can we design education so that the routine misuse of intelligence is routinely exposed?” “How can we make self, and social critique a routine part of our thinking?” “How can we construct personal narratives that highlight the history of our lives as thinkers struggling to"},{"insert":" "},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"make sense of our world?” I have tried to keep challenging problems such as these central to my reflection and my life."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"In the 1970’s I wrote extensive notes on the potential contribution to self and social critique of such important thinkers such as: Marx, Freud, Wittgenstein, Piaget, Max Weber, John Henry Newman, Bertrand Russell, Erich Fromm, Thoreau, William Graham Sumner, C. Wright Mills, Erving Goffman, Gilbert Ryle, J. L. Austin, Machiavelli, Edmund Burke, E. H. Carr, Stephen Toulmin, William Appleman Williams, Thorstein Veblen, Sartre, and many others. I became convinced that many of the great thinkers — such as these — deeply internalized many of the concepts and principles inherent in critical thinking theory. Of course great thinkers are typically "},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021","bold":true},"insert":"great critical thinkers "},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"as well. However, they are not necessarily great critical thinking "},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021","bold":true},"insert":"theorists"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":". Much research would be needed to spell out the implications of this important point."},{"insert":"\n \n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"My work has been based neither on the development of theory for theory’s sake, nor on the pursuit of metaphysical puzzles (with the fruitless argumentation they predictably engender). Nor have I been interested in the maintenance, or forwarding, of existing theories of critical thinking. Rather I am interested in intellectual constructs adequate to real world problems, and thus adequate to the development of processes by which humans can progressively create critical communities and societies. For these reasons, the abstract theory of critical thinking is of importance to me only insofar as it is integrated into a theory of application, and the theory of application is important only insofar as it is integrated into a theory of human emancipation. Such large-scale constructions require the work of thinkers from an array of disciplines working in loose collaboration over generations of self-critical intellectual work. Much research is needed on these constructs over an extended period of time."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"My focused involvement in the critical thinking movement began explicitly in the later 1970’s and the 1980’s. Beginning in the 1970’s, as I read and reflected, I gradually came to form the view that many people live egocentric and sociocentric lives grounded in self-validating illusions, and, as a result, systematically confuse their own selfish uncritical thinking with fair-minded critical thought. Whatever critical thinking most people engage in is rarely self-disclosing at a deep level. Most humans are in need of critical thinking not only to protect themselves from those who will otherwise exploit them, but also to protect others from them, since the exploited often exploit and abuse others. This is exemplified in the fact that powerful nations (typically governed by skilled selfish thinkers) exploit weak nations; rich nations take advantage of poor ones. So common is this pattern of self-aggrandizement and sociocentrism that many consider it to be inevitable (see "},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021","italic":true},"insert":"The Prince "},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"by Machiavelli and other writers in the Machiavellian tradition and beyond). These are themes I find in explicit form in my personal notes (from the 1970’s to this day)."},{"insert":"\n \nMost importantly, my focus on uncritical and sophistically critical human thought has convinced me of the need"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" for self-critique, as well as social, political, and economic critique on the level of politics, culture, and economics. I became convinced of the need to explore and construct practical ways of thinking in everyday life that advance emancipatory critical thinking as a slowly emerging worldwide need. (This work I began seriously, and in a highly focused manner in 1980’s through to the present)."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nIt seems to me that accelerating change, intensifying"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" complexity, and increasing danger are now everyday realities. The only way humans can create a just world is to educate just thinkers to live and act in that world. We need to strive for this higher end in every subject we teach (in other words, we need Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines). We need to foster it across nations and cultures, and in all dimensions of life. We must document, with appropriate research, the many obstacles to its development."},{"insert":"\n"}]}

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Linda Elder
Aug 18, 2021 • 29d ago
International Critical Thinking Manifesto

{"ops":[{"insert":"The following "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"International Critical Thinking Manifesto"},{"insert":" represents a culmination of thinking about thinking and its importance in human life throughout the past 60 years or more. It includes standards and guidelines for educators as well as the importance going beyond instruction in critical thinking to actively and explicitly fostering fairminded critical thinking concepts and principles throughout business, government, military, and personal life – across the globe and across human societies.\n \nHere is the manifesto, originally formulated January 25 and revised today, August 18, 2021.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"History and Philosophy of Critical Thinking"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nCritical thinking is integral to education and rationality and, as an idea, is traceable, ultimately, to the teaching practices and educational ideals of Socrates. Criticality has played a seminal role in the emergence of academic disciplines and the questions that have given rise to them. Knowledge, in other words, has been discovered and verified by distinguished critical thinkers throughout intellectual, scientific, and technological history. For most of the history, however, of critical thinking, it has been \"buried,\" a conception in practice without an explicit name. In the past forty years, however, critical thinking has undergone something of an awakening, a coming-out, a first major social expression, which could, if taken seriously, signal a turning-point in its history and the future of the human species.\n \nThis awakening is correlated with a growing awareness that if education is to produce critical thinkers "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"en masse"},{"insert":", if it is to globally cultivate nations of skilled thinkers and innovators rather than a dearth of thinkers amid an army of intellectually unskilled, undisciplined, and uncreative followers, then a renaissance and re-emergence of the idea of critical thinking as integral to the advancement of the human species is necessary. Such a reawakening and recognition began in the later 1930's and then surfaced in various forms in the 50’s, 60’s, and 70’s, reaching its most public expression in the 1980’s and into the present. Nevertheless, despite growing scholarship in critical thinking, and perhaps largely due to the disjointed and fragmented efforts to embody it in educational practice, the educational and social acceptance of critical thinking is still in its infancy, still largely misunderstood, still existing more in stereotype than in substance, more in appearance than reality.\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nThose who support this critical thinking manifesto are committed to the highest standards of excellence in critical thinking instruction across the curriculum at all levels of education. They are therefore concerned with the proliferation of poorly conceived \"thinking skills\" programs with their simplistic — often slick — approaches to both thinking and instruction. If critical thinking is ever to genuinely take root in education and among human societies, it is essential that the formidable obstacles to its embodiment be recognized and addressed – namely the problem of egocentric and sociocentric thinking found in all academic fields, every profession, and all parts of human life. \n \nTo this end, sound standards of critical thinking must be made accessible by clear articulation and the means set up for large-scale dissemination of that articulation. The nature and challenge of authentic critical thinking as an educational ideal must not be allowed to sink into the murky background of educational reform, while superficial or ambiguous ideas become its substitute. Critical thinking must assume its proper place at the hub of educational reform and restructuring. Critical thinking — and intellectual and social development generally — are not well-served when educational discussion is inundated with superficial conceptions of critical thinking and facile merchandising of \"thinking skills\" programs while substantial — and necessarily more challenging conceptions and programs — are thrust aside, obscured, or ignored.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Goals of the International Critical Thinking Manifesto:"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nThe goals of the "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"International Critical Thinking Manifesto"},{"insert":" are as follows:\n \n1)   to articulate, preserve, and foster the highest standards of research, scholarship, and instruction in critical thinking,\n \n2)   to articulate the standards upon which \"quality\" thinking is based and the criteria by means of which thinking, and instruction for thinking, can be appropriately cultivated and assessed,\n \n3)   to provide the intellectual underpinnings needed to assess programs which claim to foster higher order, critical thinking,\n\n4)   to advance fairminded critical thinking across all of education, business, government, military and personal life to eventually achieve fairminded critical societies across the world\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Founding Principles of the International Critical Thinking Manifesto:"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n1)   There is an intimate interrelation between knowledge and thinking.\n \n2)   Knowing that something is so is not simply a matter of believing that it is so, it also entails being justified in that belief. (Definition: knowledge is "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"justified"},{"insert":" true belief.)\n \n3)   There are general as well as domain-specific standards for the assessment of thinking.\n \n4)   To achieve knowledge in any domain, it is essential to think critically.\n \n5)   Proper criteria for assessing thinking in all domains are based on general standards such as: "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, significance, fairness, logic, depth, and breadth, and sufficiency."},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"These standards, and others, are embedded, not only in the history of the intellectual and scientific communities, but also in the self-assessing behavior of reasonable persons in everyday life. It is possible to teach all subjects in such a way as to encourage the use of these intellectual standards in both professional and personal life.\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n6)   Instruction in critical thinking should increasingly enable students to assess both their own thought and action and that of others according to essential intellectual standards. Instruction based on critical thinking should lead progressively to a disciplining of the mind and a self-chosen commitment to a life of intellectual and moral integrity.\n \n7)   Instruction in all subjects and fields should result in advancing students’ capacities and dispositions to think critically within that domain. Hence, instruction in science should lead to disciplined scientific thinking; instruction in mathematics should lead to disciplined mathematical thinking; instruction in history should lead to disciplined historical thinking; instruction in culture should lead to disciplined cultural thinking, and in a parallel manner in every discipline and domain of learning.\n \n8)   Disciplined thinking within any subject and profession entails the capacity on the part of the thinker to recognize, analyze, and assess the basic elements of thought: the "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"purpose"},{"insert":" or goal of the thinking; the problem or "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"question"},{"insert":" at issue; the frame of reference or "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"points of view"},{"insert":" involved; the "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"assumptions"},{"insert":" that give rise to the thinking; central "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"concepts"},{"insert":", ideas, and principles underlying the thinking; evidence, data, or "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"information"},{"insert":" advanced in support of the reasoning; "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"inferences"},{"insert":" and conclusions drawn from the information and assumptions; and "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"implications"},{"insert":" and consequences that follow from the reasoning.\n \n9)   Reasoning at the highest level entails embracing, actively working toward, and eventually embodying intellectual virtues such as "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, intellectual integrity, intellectual perseverance, intellectual courage, intellectual autonomy, confidence in reason "},{"insert":"and"},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":" fairmindedness"},{"insert":".\n\n10) Cultivating fairminded critical societies across the world presupposes actively advancing intellectual virtues and ethical character throughout human populations.\n\n11) Intrinsic barriers to critical thinking, which can be broadly categorized under the terms "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"egocentric"},{"insert":" and "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"sociocentric thinking"},{"insert":" function as the greatest set of barriers to the cultivation of fairminded critical thinking and fairminded critical societies, and to learning in any field of study. These barriers exist in multiple forms in all humans, and to varying degrees. They keep us from reaching our potential both individually and as a species and lie at the heart of most problems in teaching and learning, and throughout human life.\n\n12) Critical reading, writing, speaking, and listening are essential modes of learning in all academic fields. To be developed they must be systematically cultivated in a variety of subject domains as well as across disciplines. Each of these modes of learning are successful only to the extent that they entail intellectual discipline guided through critical thought and reflection.\n \n13) The earlier in their lives people learn and develop sensitivity to the principles of sound thought and the intellectual virtues of the fairminded person, the more likely they will develop desirable intellectual character traits that lead to becoming openminded persons responsive to reasonable persuasion.\n \n14) "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Education"},{"insert":" — in contrast to "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"training"},{"insert":", "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"socialization"},{"insert":", and "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"indoctrination"},{"insert":" — implies a process conducive to critical thought and judgment. It is intrinsically committed to the cultivation of reasonability and rationality.\n\n15) It is imperative that humans now take seriously the explicit tools in fairminded critical thinking - in order to both save the planet from global catastrophe and to deal with all other complex pressing issues we collectively face. This will require business, government, military and instructional leaders to embrace and advance a robust, ethical, integrated and comprehensive conception of critical thinking for the common good (not just for their own, or their country’s interests). Commitment to egalitarianism and good-faith reasoning are essential to the development of the human species.\n \n\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Defining Critical Thinking[1]"},{"insert":"\nCritical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on intellectual standards that transcend subject matter divisions: "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, depth, breadth, fairness "},{"insert":"and"},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":" sufficiency."},{"insert":" Critical thinking entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"purpose"},{"insert":", "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"question-at-issue"},{"insert":"; "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"assumptions; concepts"},{"insert":"; "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"information"},{"insert":"; "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"inferences"},{"insert":" and conclusions; "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"implications"},{"insert":" and consequences; and the "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"point of view"},{"insert":" from which the reasoning occurs. Critical thinking deconstructs, defines, and advances all modes of thinking, including: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, ethical thinking, and philosophical thinking. All the best thinkers in every field of study think critically, though not always at an explicit level.\n \nThe level of critical thinking of any kind is never wholly consistent in any individual; everyone is subject to, at minimum, episodes of undisciplined or irrational thought. Its quality is therefore typically a matter of degree and dependent on, among other things, the quality and depth of experience in a given domain of thinking or with respect to a particular class of questions. No one is a critical thinker through-and-through, but only to such-and-such a degree, with such-and-such insights and blind spots, subject to such-and-such tendencies towards self-delusion. For this reason, the development of critical thinking skills and dispositions is a life-long endeavor.\n \nProperly conceived, then, critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking that attempts to reason fairmindedly at the highest level of quality. People who consistently think critically attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathetically. They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked. They strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric tendencies. They routinely use critical thinking concepts and principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve thinking. They work diligently to personify, throughout all areas of their lives, intellectual virtues, to ultimately become persons who "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"embody"},{"insert":" critical thinking character. They realize that no matter how skilled they are as thinkers, they can always improve their reasoning abilities and will at times fall prey to mistakes in reasoning, irrationalities, prejudices, biases, distortions, uncritically accepted social rules and taboos, self-interest, and vested interest. They strive to improve the world in whatever ways they can, thereby contributing to a more rational, elevated, egalitarian, society. At the same time, they recognize the complexities inherent in doing so.  They avoid thinking simplistically about complicated issues and strive to appropriately consider the rights and needs of relevant others. They recognize the difficulties in developing as thinkers and commit themselves to life-long practice toward self-improvement. They embody the Socratic principle:  "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"The unexamined life is not worth living"},{"insert":".  \n ------\n"},{"attributes":{"size":"small","italic":true},"insert":"This manifesto was adapted and developed from the original statement and defining articles of the National Council on Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987, which has yet to become realized in the U.S. or abroad."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"size":"small","italic":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"size":"small"},"insert":"The definition in this manifesto was adapted and developed from the 1987 definition of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking by Richard Paul and Michael Scriven and presented at the 8"},{"attributes":{"size":"small","script":"super"},"insert":"th"},{"attributes":{"size":"small"},"insert":" Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, summer 1987, as well as the brief conceptualization of critical thinking by Linda Elder – both of which can be found at"},{"insert":"\n"}]}

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Linda Elder
Aug 09, 2021 • 39d ago
Watch This Series: The Last Bastion

{"ops":[{"insert":"If you want a glimpse into the struggle for Peru’s independence during the period from 1780 to 1824, and improve your understanding of Latin American history, I recommend the Netflix series "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"The Last Bastion"},{"insert":". This series will heighten your cultural awareness of Peru and help you visualize what it may have been like to live during that time, as Spanish rule was on the decline and independence was budding.\n \nYou can read a brief review of the series at this link: "},{"attributes":{"color":"#0563c1","link":""},"insert":""},{"insert":"\n \nSee the series here: "},{"attributes":{"color":"#0563c1","link":""},"insert":""},{"insert":"\n"}]}

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Linda Elder
Jul 25, 2021 • 54d ago
How Well Do You Think Through Implications?

{"ops":[{"insert":"All thinking has an internal dynamic. It leads somewhere and, when acted upon, has consequences. You can’t be a critical thinker if you are insensitive to the many implications inherent in your thinking. Likewise, you can’t be a critical thinker if you ignore the consequences in your life that follow from the thinking that is driving your thinking. Focus on where your thinking is leading you.\n \nWhat are some important consequences of…\n"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• …the food you eat (and the food you don’t eat)?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• …the amount of exercise you do?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• …how you spend your time?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• …the emotions you feed and those you ignore?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• …fear, anger, envy, and jealousy in your life?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" "},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"When you consider the implications of what you might do before you do it, you explicitly choose (insofar as you can) the consequences that happen when you act. Some people simply don’t imagine what will or might follow when they act on a decision they have made. They smoke cigarettes but are unprepared for lung problems. They don’t exercise but are unprepared for muscle deterioration. They don’t actively develop their minds but are unprepared for the increasing inflexibility and close-mindedness that come with aging when one fails to do this. They don’t realize that everything they do has implications. They don’t realize that it is possible to make a habit of thinking through the implications of decisions before acting, and thus learn to act more wisely, to live more rationally. Critical, reflective thinkers actively consider the implications of their actions before acting and modify their behavior accordingly (before they experience negative consequences).\n \nNot only are there implications for your decisions, but implications are embedded in what you say, in the words you decide to use. That is, the way you use language implies specific things. For example, if you say to your wife, in a loud and angry tone, “Why the hell didn’t you do the dishes?,” you imply, at a minimum:\n \n• She should have done the dishes."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• She knows that she should have done the dishes."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• She knew you would be upset if she didn’t do the dishes."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• In the future, under similar circumstances, she better do the dishes unless she wants you to get angry and shout at her."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" \nBecause implications are connected with or follow from everything you say, choose your words carefully. Before you say anything, be sure you have thought through the implications of your words. Resolve to use language with care and precision.\n \nBe on the lookout for…\n \n… implications of decisions or potential decisions—your decisions and those of others. Look on the surface for obvious implications. Look beneath the surface for less-obvious implications. Notice the implications of what you say. Look closely at the consequences of your actions. Make a list of all the significant implications of a potential decision before acting. Notice when others fail to think through implications. Look for examples in the news. Notice that some decisions have insignificant results, whereas others (such as the decision not to get a vaccination during a public health crisis) lead to deadly results and damaged lives. Look for opportunities to help others think through implications (your children or your significant other, for example, or your colleagues or employees).\n \nStrategies for thinking through implications:\n \n• Look at your life as a set of moment-to-moment options. At any moment, you can do X, Y, or Z. Every act, and every pattern of actions, has outcomes. What outcomes do you want? What must you do to anticipate likely outcomes? The answer is to become a student of your own behavior, reflect on the likely outcomes of possible decisions, and make your decisions more mindfully."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• When faced with a difficult problem, make a list of the likely implications of dealing with the problem in various ways. Then act in the way that is likely to lead to the best outcome in the circumstances."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• Think about the implications (for future health and happiness) of the way you are now living your life. Make a list of the implications you probably will face if you continue to live as you are. Will you be satisfied with those implications? Concentrate  on the likely negative implications of your habits."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• Carefully observe the language you use when framing your thoughts. Note what is implied by what you say. Note also what is implied by what others say. How do others react to what you say to them? Make a commitment to carefully choose your words before speaking to others—be aware of what you might imply."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" \nQuestions you should ask to target implications:\n\n• If I decide to do X, what is likely to happen?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• If I decide not to do X, what is likely to happen?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• If we make this decision in this relationship, what are the likely implications? What were the consequences when we made similar decisions before?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• What are the implications of ignoring a specific problem (for example, in an intimate relationship or in parenting)?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"• If I keep living in the present as I have in the past, what consequences will I likely face?"},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":" "},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"[This blog piece was adapted from "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"30 Days to Better Thinking and Better Living"},{"insert":" by Linda Elder and Richard Paul, 2013, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, p.. 87-89)\n"}]}

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Linda Elder
Jul 14, 2021 • 65d ago
To What Extent Do You Fall Prey to Common Sociocentric Pathological Tendencies?

{"ops":[{"insert":"There are multiple interrelated sociocentric dispositions that emerge out of or connect with egocentric tendencies (sociocentricity is focused on getting the most for \"our group\" while egocentric thinking is focused on getting the most for oneself - both sets of tendencies occur without regard to the rights and needs of others). All of us, insofar as we are sociocentric, embody the following pathological dispositions (as well as others that would cluster with them). Critical thinkers are keenly aware of these tendencies and consistently seek to counter them with fairminded reasoning. As you read through these dispositions, ask yourself whether you recognize them as processes that take place regularly in your own mind (if you conclude “not me!”—think again):\n \n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric memory"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency to “forget” evidence and information that does not support their thinking, and to “remember” evidence and information that does.\n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric myopia"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency to think in an absolutist way within a narrow “groupish” viewpoint.\n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric righteousness"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency to feel that “our group” is superior in light of our confidence that “we” inherently possess the truth.\n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric hypocrisy"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency to ignore flagrant inconsistencies between what a group professes to believe and the actual beliefs implied by its members’ collective behavior, or between the standards to which they hold their group members and those to which they expect other groups to adhere.\n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric oversimplification"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency to ignore real and important complexities in the world in favor of simplistic, group-interested notions when consideration of those complexities would require the group to modify its beliefs or values.\n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric blindness"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency not to notice facts and evidence that contradict the group’s favored beliefs or values.\n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric immediacy"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency to over-generalize immediate group feelings and experiences so that when one significant event, (or a few such events), is experienced by the group as highly favorable or unfavorable, this feeling is generalized to the group’s overall outlook on the world (or view of other groups).\n• "},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"sociocentric absurdity"},{"insert":": the natural group tendency to fail to notice group thinking that has “absurd” consequences or implications.\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#268f7b"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Sociocentric Pathological Tendencies Can Be Challenged"},{"insert":"\n\nIt is not enough to recognize abstractly that the human mind has predictable sociocentric pathologies. If we want to live rational lives and create rational societies, we must take concrete steps to correct these pathologies. Routinely identifying these tendencies in action needs to become habitual for us. Those who take this challenge seriously recognize that it is a long-term process, never complete. To some extent, it is analogous to stripping off onion skins. After we remove one layer, we find another beneath it. Therefore, each of the following admonitions should not be taken as simple suggestions that any group could immediately, and effectively, put into action, but rather as strategic formulations of long-range goals. Every group can perform these corrections, but only over time and with considerable practice.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric memory"},{"insert":". We can take steps to correct the natural tendency of our group to “forget” evidence that does not support our group’s thinking and “remember” evidence that does by overtly seeking evidence and information that does not support the thinking of the group, and by directing explicit attention to that information. We should especially seek information and evidence that does not place our group in a positive light—information the group would rather forget or not be faced with. (If you “try” but cannot find such evidence, you should probably assume that your sociocentric tendencies are standing in the way of finding it.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric myopia"},{"insert":". We can take steps to correct our natural group tendency to think in an absolutistic way within an overly-narrow, group point of view by routinely thinking within points of view that conflict with our group’s viewpoint. For example, if we are “liberals,” we can read books by insightful conservatives. If we are “conservatives,” we can read books by insightful liberals. If we are North Americans, we can study a contrasting South American point of view, or a European, Far-Eastern, Middle-Eastern, or African point of view. (If you don’t discover significant group prejudices in your thought through this process, you should question whether you are acting in good faith in trying to identify your group’s prejudices.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric righteousness"},{"insert":". We can take steps to correct our natural sociocentric tendency to feel superior in light of our confidence that our group possesses the truth. We can do this by regularly reminding ourselves of how little our group actually knows. To do so, we can explicitly state the unanswered questions that our group has never openly reasoned through (though our group behavior would imply that we have the truth in answer to those questions). (If, in this process, you don’t discover that your group knows far less than its behavior would imply, you should question the manner in which you pursued these questions.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric hypocrisy"},{"insert":". We can take steps to correct the natural tendency of our group to ignore flagrant inconsistencies between what it professes to believe and the actual beliefs its behavior implies. We can uncover inconsistencies between the standards we impose on group members and those we require of those outside the group. We can do this by regularly comparing the criteria and standards by which we judge others with those by which we judge our own group. (If you don’t find many flagrant inconsistencies in your group’s thinking and behavior, you should doubt whether you have dug deeply enough.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric oversimplification"},{"insert":". We can take steps to correct our group’s natural tendency to ignore real and important complexities in the world by regularly focusing on those complexities, formulating them explicitly in words, and targeting them. We can look for instances when it is in our group’s interest to simplify the complex in order to maintain a particular view, or to pursue some particular group interest. (If you don’t discover over time that your group has oversimplified many important issues, you should question whether you have really confronted the complexities inherent in the issues.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric blindness"},{"insert":". We can take steps to correct our natural tendency to ignore facts or evidence that contradict our group’s favored beliefs or values, by explicitly seeking out those facts and that evidence. We can look for situations when it is in our group’s interest to ignore information it would rather not see or have to face. (If you don’t find yourself experiencing significant discomfort as you pursue these facts, you should question whether you are taking this process seriously. If you discover that your group’s traditional beliefs were all correct from the beginning, you probably moved to a new and more sophisticated level of self-deception.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric immediacy"},{"insert":". We can help correct our natural tendency to overgeneralize our group’s immediate feelings and experiences by developing the habit of putting them into a larger perspective. We can look for examples of times in the past when our group has overgeneralized some event or set of events, whether positive or negative, then examine the consequences of our group having done so. We can consider the implications of our doing so again, should we face similar events in the future. We can strive to avoid\ngroup distortions of any kind. (If, in seeking examples of group or sociocentric immediacy, you come up short, you need to look more closely at your group’s history.)\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Correcting sociocentric absurdity"},{"insert":". We can take steps to correct our natural tendency to ignore groupthink that has absurd implications by making the important implications of our group’s thinking explicit, then assessing them for their desirability and realism. This requires that we frequently trace the implications of our group beliefs and the consequences of our group’s behavior. For example, we should frequently ask ourselves: “If we really believed this, how would we act? Do we really act that way? Do we want to act that way? Is it ethical for us to act that way?” (If, after what you consider to be a serious search, you find no sociocentric absurdity in the thinking of your groups, think again. You are likely deceiving yourself.)\n \nThis blog is adapted from: "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Liberating the Mind"},{"insert":" by Linda Elder (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2019, pp. 153-156). For activities focused on getting command of your sociocentric nature, see the Wall of Barriers in our Critical Thinking Academy.\n"}]}

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