Blog Post: Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College-University Curriculum Part I (Part 4 of 8)

Richard Paul Archives
Sep 01, 2021 • 16d ago
Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College-University Curriculum Part I (Part 4 of 8)

{"ops":[{"insert":"This article was published in the Fall 2011 issue of Sonoma State University’s"},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":" Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines"},{"insert":" (vol. 26, no. 3) and was titled, “Reflections on the Nature of Critical Thinking, Its History, Politics, and Barriers, and on Its Status across the College/University Curriculum Part I.” (Part II was published in the Spring 2012 issue.) The piece was divided into eight sections:\n\nAbstract"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"Introduction"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"I. My Intellectual Journey"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"II. Barriers to the Cultivation of Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"III. Forms and Manifestations of Critical Thinking, Mapping the Field"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"IV. The Establishment of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"V. Academic Departments, Faculty and Administrators Generally Fail to Foster Critical Thinking"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"VI Conclusion"},{"attributes":{"list":"bullet"},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"\nThe fifth of these appears below.\n \n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"III. Forms and Manifestations of Critical Thinking, Mapping the Field"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nPhilosophers claiming to teach students critical thinking in an authentic way owe the faculty at large a robust and intelligible conception of the diverse forms and manifestations of critical thinking and the manner in which those forms interrelate. With such a conception it becomes possible to account for the unity and diversity of critical thinking studies. Instead of fruitless argumentation as to which approach is “correct,” diversely oriented theoreticians can make clear why they have chosen a given approach.\n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"A. Assessing Frameworks for Thinking Using Six Polarities"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"insert":{"image":"data:image/jpeg;base64,/9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQEAYABgAAD/4RD6RXhpZgAATU0AKgAAAAgABQESAAMAAAABAAEAAAE7AAIAAAAMAAAIVodpAAQAAAABAAAIYpydAAEAAAAYAAAQ2uocAAcAAAgMAAAASgAAAAAc6gAAAAgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFdvcmsgTGFwdG9wAAAFkAMAAgAAABQAABCwkAQAAgAAABQAABDEkpEAAgAAAAM3NwAAkpIAAgAAAAM3NwAA6hwABwAACAwAAAikAAAAABzqAAAACAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA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"}},{"insert":"\n\nEvery approach to critical thinking can be better"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" understood by mapping it systematically on each of the following six polarities. For example, you can use them to identify where your approach to critical thinking falls in each of these categories."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach to critical thinking implicit or"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"color":"#242021","bold":true},"insert":" explicit? "},{"insert":"Most faculty approach critical thinking in an"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" implicit rather than an explicit manner. They believe that one can learn critical thinking best by working under mentors who model critical thinking in their reading, writing, speaking, and listening — without calling explicit attention to the fact that they are doing so. (See Cosgrove, 2011)."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach global or specialized?"},{"insert":" There"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" are concepts that apply to critical thinking across the disciplines. To the extent that there are, the nature or character of critical thinking in one discipline re-enforces the nature and character of critical thinking in the others. Nevertheless, there are also discipline-specific critical thinking concepts and principles, skills and abilities."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach systematic or episodic?"},{"insert":" One"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" can approach critical thinking as a set of concepts and principles inherent in all thought within a discipline, on the one hand, or restrict it to periodic relevance, on the other. Those who approach critical thinking as episodic think of it as relevant only in special circumstances, usually when facing a difficult or complex problem. In such a case, critical thinking typically shows up in textbooks in stand-alone boxes, titled something like “Critical Thinking Problem” or “Critical Thinking Questions.”"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach Socratic or sophistic?"},{"insert":" This"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" distinction is crucial because humans often use their criticality to “win” an argument or gain advantage over others. They are concerned with their vested interests above all else. In contrast, there are some people who develop as fair-minded thinkers and strive to face the truth, even if the truth does not put them in a favourable light. Socrates symbolizes this latter case (people with intellectual integrity and intellectual empathy). Most politicians are more likely to think habitually in a sophistic manner."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nSophistry, in contrast, symbolizes those interested"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" only in winning. We sometimes mark this distinction by the terms “strong sense” or “weak sense” critical thinking. For example, when philosophers attempt to persuade the faculty to restrict the teaching of critical thinking courses to those candidates with an advanced degree in philosophy, or claim that philosophers have a special competence in critical thinking (that makes them uniquely qualified to teach critical thinking), they use critical thinking (in my view) in a weak or sophistic sense. Highly skilled intellectuals can be self-deceived in their thought; as can, indeed, any given human whatsoever, when her or his vested interests are involved. If the danger of sophistic critical thinking is not recognized and combated, our communities and societies will continue to be dominated by sophistic thought. Where you stand in this polarity is, in my view, the most significant fact about your own criticality. I have argued for the significance of this fact for more than 30 years."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Is your approach based in ordinary or technical"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"color":"#242021","bold":true},"insert":" language? "},{"insert":"Critical thinking can be approached in terms"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" of specialized or technical concepts and principles or, conversely, in terms of natural or non-technical concepts and principles. When it is approached as a specialized language, it has limited use. For instance, when it is understood in terms of formal logic, only those who understand formal logic can use it. When it is understood in terms of theory of argumentation, only those who study argumentation theoretically have access to it. When it is understood in terms of any specialized discipline, such as informal logic, analytic philosophy, rhetoric, cognitive psychology, and so on, only those people who study and think within these disciplines have entrée into it. Further, it is questionable as to how and to what extent any such approach can actually help people reason through life’s real and often complex issues. (For instance, how many philosophers actually use formal logic formulas [or constructs in theory of argumentation] to figure out solutions to issues implicit in their personal relationships?) Conversely, when the concepts embedded in natural languages (such as English, Chinese, Arabic, Spanish, and so on) are used as foundations of critical thinking, all (potentially) who speak natural languages have access to them."},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"B. On the Scope of Critical Thinking"},{"insert":"\n\nSome theoreticians (mostly philosophers) assume that"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" reasoning and argumentation are the only constructions in which critical thinking is manifested. For instance, consider the journal "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Informal Logic"},{"insert":", sub-titled, "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"Reasoning and"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021","italic":true},"insert":" Argumentation in Theory and Practice. "},{"insert":"A close examination of articles in this journal reveals that the editors of"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" this journal believe that critical thinking is best understood as a mode of thinking exclusively studied and assessed in reasoning and argumentation studies. But reasoning and argumentation do not begin to encompass the wide field of intellectual constructs relevant to critical analysis. For example, intellectual constructions open to critical analysis include all of the following (and more):"},{"insert":"\n\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"essays, theories, knowledge claims, assumptions, math problems, world views, concepts, information, inferences, novels, poems, plays, schools of thought, critical evaluations, editorials, news articles, news stories, budgets, financial plans, axiomatic systems, accounting documents, architectural designs, engineering designs, cases, number systems, classificatory systems, intellectual distinctions, histories, experiments, critique of mathematical constructs, critiques of art of whatever sort, background logic, understandings, interpretations, and so on, and on and on and on."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":"No finite list of intellectual constructs could exhaust the potential engagements about which a thinker might reflect critically. Whenever the human intellect is engaged, it can do so critically or uncritically. It can pursue pathways of the mind in any direction whatsoever. Therefore it can reflect upon an unlimited number of intellectual constructs. Logicians of any stripe find it hard to grasp critical thought in this way, so wedded as they are to reasoning and argumentation. Hence, critical thinking, as conceived by argumentation theorists and informal logicians, is not of much use in analyzing ways to bring critical thinking across the disciplines."},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nTo put this another way, critical thinking across the"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" disciplines is not illuminated by the logic of terms essential to formal logic, such as:"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nAffirmation, negation, conjunction, disjunction, truth values, conditionality, argument"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" indicators, validity, formal fallacies, informal fallacies, syllogism, statistical syllogism, probability, conditionals, disjunctive syllogism, truth-functional logic, categorical sentences, Venn diagrams, quantificational schemata, polyadic problems, classes, class theory, variant theories of classes, equivalence, deductive technique, validity of quantificational schemata, existence and singular inference, identity, conversion of quantifiers, extension of quantification."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nRather it is illuminated much more by the logic of"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" terms such as:"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nPurpose, goal, objective, question, problem,"},{"attributes":{"color":"#242021"},"insert":" issue, information, data, fact, reasons, reason, observations, experiences, evidence, interpretation, inference, conclusion, solution, concept, theory, definitions, laws, principles, models, explanation, assumption, presupposition, axioms, implications, consequences, point of view, frame of reference, perspective, orientation, world view, clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, fairness, logic, logical, the logic of a question, the logic of a situation, the logic of a discipline, the logic of thought, the logic of action, context, contextualization, freedom, emancipation, self-direction, self-discipline, self-reflection, egocentrism, socio-centrism, self-deception, intellectual traits, intellectual humility, confidence in reason, intellectual perseverance, fair-mindedness, intellectual courage, intellectual empathy, intellectual autonomy, intellectual integrity, knowledge, subjectivity, judgment, one-system question, no-system question, multi-system question, elements of thought, standards of thought, traits of mind, insight, prejudice, way of life, way of being, critical thinking, critical mind, critical society, socialization, education, emancipation."},{"attributes":{"indent":1},"insert":"\n"}]}


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