Blog Post: [Part 3] Dialogical and Dialectical Thinking

Richard Paul Archives
Aug 29, 2022 • 33d ago
[Part 3] Dialogical and Dialectical Thinking

{"ops":[{"insert":"[Missed Part 2? "},{"attributes":{"bold":true,"color":"blue","link":"https://community.criticalthinking.org/blogPost.php?param=166"},"insert":"Read It Here"},{"insert":"]\n \n \n"},{"attributes":{"bold":true},"insert":"Part II: Pedagogy"},{"insert":"\n \nEveryday life, in contrast to school, is filled with multilogical problems for which there are competing answers and so require dialogical thinking. Furthermore, even when subject matter can be algorithmically and monologically expressed, students need to approach that subject matter through dialogical thought which brings their own thinking into play. Teachers do not, by and large, recognize these facts, nor when it is pointed out to them, do they know how to take them into account in the classroom. Being habituated to didactic instruction, dialogical instruction that does not result in predictable “correct” answers is a puzzle to them. They do not know how to foster it. They do not know how to assess it. They do not know how to use it to aid students in mastering content.\n \nThere are four interrelated things teachers need to learn: "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"1)"},{"insert":" how to identify and distinguish multilogical from monological problems and issues, "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"2)"},{"insert":" how to teach Socratically, "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"3)"},{"insert":" how to use dialogical and dialectical thought to master content, and "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"4)"},{"insert":" how to assess dialogical and dialectical thought. I should add that one does not master these understandings overnight, but only by degrees over an extended period of time. They cannot be taught, for example, in a one-day workshop. Let us consider each of these four learnings in order.\n\n \n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":"Learning to Identify and Distinguish Multilogical from Monological Problems and Issues"},{"insert":"\n"},{"attributes":{"italic":true,"bold":true},"insert":" "},{"insert":"\nThis involves distinguishing problems for which there is an established step-by-step procedure for solving them – What is the square root of 653? What is the boiling point of water? In what year did the American revolution begin? – from problems and issues that can be analyzed from different points of view leading to multiple competing answers, resolutions, or solutions – Was the American revolution justified? Should the colonists have used violence to achieve their ends? When should you conform to group pressure and when should you resist that pressure? What is the meaning of this story? What would a true friend do in this situation? What caused WWII? Could it have been avoided? How important is it to get a good education? How important is it to make a lot of money? Is money the root of all evil? What kind of person are you? What are America’s real values? How can you tell what to believe and what not to believe? These kinds of questions, we should note, can be raised from the earliest school years: Who was right in your argument with your sister, she or you? When should you share your toys? Was it right for Jack (in “Jack and the Beanstalk”) to take the golden eggs and the harp as well? Should the big Billy Goat have killed the Troll (in “Billy Goat Gruff”)? Is this the best rule to have to avoid accidents in the playground or can you think of a better one? Do the advertisements on TV for toys give you good information about toys, or do they mislead you about them?\n \nOf course, though there are multiple conflicting answers possible to multilogical questions, it does not follow that each is "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"equally"},{"insert":" defensible or "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"equally"},{"insert":" rational. The whole point of considering the reasoning behind conflicting positions is to assess their relative merits and debits in a rational way. After analysis and dialogue, we may be able to rule out some as simplistic, recognize the partiality of others, and gain some sense of what a deeper response to the issue would include. We will come out with better answers, if not "},{"attributes":{"italic":true},"insert":"the"},{"insert":" answer.\n"}]}


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